At Takeda Oncology, we understand the importance of keeping our patients and caregivers educated about the diseases impacting them. Scroll down to learn facts and statistics about some of the disease areas we work in.
Leukemia is a blood cancer that forms in certain cells in a person’s bone marrow. CML—a rare malignancy—is one of four main types of leukemia; it is a result of a genetic mutation that takes place in early, immature versions of myeloid cells, which form red blood cells, platelets and most types of white blood cells. Subsequently, an abnormal gene called BCR-ABL1 forms, turning the damaged cell into a CML cell. CML typically progresses slowly, but it can change into a fast-growing acute leukemia that is hard to treat.
The Philadelphia chromosome is an abnormal gene formed when pieces of chromosome 9 and 22 switch with each other. This forms a longer chromosome 9 and a shorter chromosome 22, which leads to the development of BCR-ABL1 and is associated with CML.
Though tens of thousands of people are diagnosed with leukemia every year, only about 10 percent have CML. Approximately 8,430 people in the U.S. will be diagnosed with CML in 2018, and many will have good long-term results with appropriate treatment regimens. Average age at diagnosis is 64, and more than half of CML cases occur in patients 65 and older.
In your body’s immune system, there are several types of cells that work together to fight infections and other diseases. Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer formed when plasma cells, a type of white blood cell made in the bone marrow, become cancerous and grow out of control.
While multiple myeloma is a relatively rare disease, accounting for approximately 1% of cancers diagnosed worldwide, it is the second most common form of blood cancer after Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Myelodysplastic syndromes are types of blood cancer that occur when the blood-forming cells in bone marrow become abnormal. This leads to low numbers of one or more of the three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Different types of MDS are based on how cells in the bone marrow look under the microscope and how many types of blood cells are affected, along with other factors. MDS can also be classified based on risk of progressing to more serious conditions, including leukemia. In roughly one-third of cases, MDS can develop into acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rapidly growing cancer of bone marrow cells.
Some types of MDS, referred to as “low-risk MDS” progress slowly and may cause mild to moderate anemia (a low number of red cells), or decrements to other types of cells. Other types of MDS called “high-risk MDS” may cause severe problems. In patients with high-risk MDS, immature cells called blast cells make up more than 5 percent of the cells in the marrow. In comparison, blast cells make up less than 5 percent of all cells in the marrow under normal conditions. The result is that the blast cells created do not develop into normal red cells, white cells and platelets, often causing more severe deficits in red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Low blood cell counts, referred to as cytopenias, are a hallmark feature of MDS and are responsible for some of the symptoms that MDS patients experience—infection, anemia, spontaneous bleeding or easy bruising.
According to the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, it is estimated that an average of 15,351 new cases of MDS were diagnosed each year in the US from 2009-2013. In a 2015 analysis of cancer registries, an estimated 60,000 to 170,000 people are living with MDS in the US.
Websites of the American Cancer Society (https://www.cancer.org), Johns Hopkins Medicine (https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org), Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (https://www.lls.org) and the MDS Foundation (https://www.mds-foundation.org).
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Even with substantial improvement in cancer detection and treatment over the past few decades, lung cancer is responsible for about 20 percent of cancer-related deaths worldwide, or about 1.6 million people in 2018.
NSCLC is the most common form of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 85% of the estimated 234,030 new cases of lung cancer diagnosed each year in the United States, according to the National Cancer Institute.
Lung cancer develops in different ways in different people. There are many subtypes of lung cancer caused by different genetic changes, or mutations.
In some people, lung cancer is caused by a mutation in what's called the ALK gene. About 3% to 5% of people with NSCLC have this mutation. This means somewhere between 5,600 and 9,400 people who get lung cancer each year have ALK+ NSCLC.
Websites of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (http://gco.iarc.fr); American Cancer Society (https://www.cancer.org); National Cancer Institute (https://seer.cancer.gov); and Gainor JF. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19(15):4273-81.