FOR
PATIENTS

DISEASE
EDUCATION

At Takeda Oncology, we understand the importance of keeping our patients and caregivers educated about the diseases impacting them. Scroll down to learn facts and statistics about some of the disease areas we work in.

CHRONIC
MYELOID
LEUKEMIA
(CML)

WHAT IS CML?

Leukemia is a blood cancer that forms in certain cells in a person’s bone marrow. CML—a rare malignancy—is one of four main types of leukemia; it is a result of a genetic mutation that takes place in early, immature versions of myeloid cells, which form red blood cells, platelets and most types of white blood cells. Subsequently, an abnormal gene called BCR-ABL1 forms, turning the damaged cell into a CML cell. CML typically progresses slowly, but it can change into a fast-growing acute leukemia that is hard to treat.

The Philadelphia chromosome is an abnormal gene formed when pieces of chromosome 9 and 22 switch with each other. This forms a longer chromosome 9 and a shorter chromosome 22, which leads to the development of BCR-ABL1 and is associated with CML.

Though tens of thousands of people are diagnosed with leukemia every year, only about 10 percent have CML. Approximately 8,430 people in the U.S. will be diagnosed with CML in 2018, and many will have good long-term results with appropriate treatment regimens. Average age at diagnosis is 64, and more than half of CML cases occur in patients 65 and older.

Source

Websites of the American Cancer Society (https://www.cancer.org) and the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (https://www.lls.org).

COLORECTAL
CANCER

WHAT IS COLORECTAL CANCER?

Colorectal cancer begins in the colon or in the rectum.

Most colorectal cancers start as polyps, which begin as growths on the innermost layer of the colon or rectum and can spread through some or all of the other layers. Some, but not all, polyps can develop into cancer. The type of polyp can determine whether it develops into cancer cells.

Over time, cancer cells can grow into the wall of the colon or rectum. From there, the cancer cells can then grow into blood vessels or lymph vessels and then are able to travel to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

Globally, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer found in both men and women. Of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in men and women in the world, it is second, responsible for an estimated 880,792 deaths in 2018.

There were an estimated 97,220 new cases of colon cancer and 43,030 new cases of rectal cancer in 2018 in the US.

SOURCE

Websites of the American Cancer Society (https://www.cancer.org) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (http://gco.iarc.fr).

CUTANEOUS
T-CELL
LYMPHOMA
(CTCL)

WHAT IS CTCL?

CTCL is a rare blood cancer seen on the skin comprised of a group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that are derived from T-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell.

While CTCL is largely confined to the skin at diagnosis, it impacts each patient differently, with symptoms ranging from rash-like patches to thicker, itchy plaques and raised tumors. Despite ongoing research, the cause of CTCL remains unknown.

In the western world, the estimated annual incidence of CTCL is 1 in every 100,000, and it impacts twice as many men as women. The risk for CTCL increases with age, and patients are typically diagnosed in their mid-50s.

SOURCE

Leukemia & Lymphoma Society website (https://www.lls.org); Lymphoma Research Foundation website (https://www.lymphoma.org); Wilcox RA. Am J Hematol. 2016;91(1):152-165; Bekkenk MW. Blood. 2000;95(12):3653-61; Willemze R. Blood. 2005;105(10):3768-85; Agar SN. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(31):4730-9; and Wilcox RA. Am J Hematol. 2014;89(8):837-51.

HODGKIN
LYMPHOMA

WHAT IS HODGKIN LYMPHOMA?

Lymphoma is a general term for a group of cancers that originate in the lymphatic system. There are two major categories of lymphoma: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is distinguished from other types of lymphoma by the presence of one characteristic type of cell, known as the Reed-Sternberg cell.

According to the Lymphoma Coalition, in 2012 approximately 67,000 people worldwide were diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma and more than 25,000 people died from this cancer.

SOURCE

Websites of the American Cancer Society (https://www.cancer.org) and Lymphoma Coalition (https://www.lymphomacoalition.org).

MULTIPLE
MYELOMA

WHAT IS MULTIPLE MYELOMA?

In your body’s immune system, there are several types of cells that work together to fight infections and other diseases. Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer formed when plasma cells, a type of white blood cell made in the bone marrow, become cancerous and grow out of control.

While multiple myeloma is a relatively rare disease, accounting for approximately 1% of cancers diagnosed worldwide, it is the second most common form of blood cancer after Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

SOURCE

Websites of Myeloma UK (https://www.myeloma.org.uk) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (http://gco.iarc.fr).

MYELODYSPLASTIC
SYNDROMES
(MDS)

WHAT IS MDS?

Myelodysplastic syndromes are types of blood cancer that occur when the blood-forming cells in bone marrow become abnormal. This leads to low numbers of one or more of the three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

Different types of MDS are based on how cells in the bone marrow look under the microscope and how many types of blood cells are affected, along with other factors. MDS can also be classified based on risk of progressing to more serious conditions, including leukemia. In roughly one-third of cases, MDS can develop into acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rapidly growing cancer of bone marrow cells.

Some types of MDS, referred to as “low-risk MDS” progress slowly and may cause mild to moderate anemia (a low number of red cells), or decrements to other types of cells. Other types of MDS called “high-risk MDS” may cause severe problems. In patients with high-risk MDS, immature cells called blast cells make up more than 5 percent of the cells in the marrow. In comparison, blast cells make up less than 5 percent of all cells in the marrow under normal conditions. The result is that the blast cells created do not develop into normal red cells, white cells and platelets, often causing more severe deficits in red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

Low blood cell counts, referred to as cytopenias, are a hallmark feature of MDS and are responsible for some of the symptoms that MDS patients experience—infection, anemia, spontaneous bleeding or easy bruising.

According to the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, it is estimated that an average of 15,351 new cases of MDS were diagnosed each year in the US from 2009-2013. In a 2015 analysis of cancer registries, an estimated 60,000 to 170,000 people are living with MDS in the US.

SOURCE

Websites of the American Cancer Society (https://www.cancer.org), Johns Hopkins Medicine (https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org), Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (https://www.lls.org) and the MDS Foundation (https://www.mds-foundation.org).

NON-SMALL
CELL LUNG
CANCER
(NSCLC)

WHAT IS NSCLC?

Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Even with substantial improvement in cancer detection and treatment over the past few decades, lung cancer is responsible for about 20 percent of cancer-related deaths worldwide, or about 1.6 million people in 2018.

NSCLC is the most common form of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 85% of the estimated 234,030 new cases of lung cancer diagnosed each year in the United States, according to the National Cancer Institute.

Lung cancer develops in different ways in different people. There are many subtypes of lung cancer caused by different genetic changes, or mutations.

In some people, lung cancer is caused by a mutation in what's called the ALK gene. About 3% to 5% of people with NSCLC have this mutation. This means somewhere between 5,600 and 9,400 people who get lung cancer each year have ALK+ NSCLC.

SOURCE

Websites of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (http://gco.iarc.fr); American Cancer Society (https://www.cancer.org); National Cancer Institute (https://seer.cancer.gov); and Gainor JF. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19(15):4273-81.

OSTEOSARCOMA
(NON-
METASTATIC)

WHAT IS OSTEOSARCOMA?

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of cancer that starts in the bones. If the spread of the cancer is limited to the bone it started in, and possibly the adjacent tissues, such as muscles, tendons, or fats, it is called non-metastatic osteosarcoma. The cells in the tumors formed by this disease look similar to the cells that normally help make new bone tissue, however the tissues formed are not as strong as normal bones.

Osteosarcoma is rare. In 2010, less than 2,000 people were diagnosed with osteosarcoma in the United States and European Union. Roughly 50% of new cases are in children and teens.

Osteosarcoma is largely found in people between 10 and 30 years old, with teenagers being the largest group, but people of any age can be diagnosed with osteosarcoma.

SOURCE

Website of the American Cancer Society (https://www.cancer.org) and Kager L. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2010;6:279-286.

PERIPHERAL
T-CELL
LYMPHOMA
(PTCL)

WHAT IS PTCL?

PTCL is a rare, heterogeneous group of blood cancers comprised of more than 25 subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which originate from mature white blood cells known as T-cells.

Depending on the subtype, symptoms of PTCL can manifest in many different areas of the body including the skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen and bone marrow. Patients tend to be diagnosed with advanced disease and experience B-symptoms including fever, weight loss, rash and night sweats, which usually indicate the disease is more active.

SOURCE

Swerdlow SH. Blood. 2016;127(20):2375-90; Vose J. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(25):4124-30; Matutes E. Int J Lab Hem. 2018;40(1):97-103; and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network website (https://www.nccn.org).