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Lymphoma is the most common type of blood cancer and originates from abnormal lymphocytes, a key component of the human immune system. There are two main types — Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma can occur in children, teens and adults of any age. 1-3 

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma, when active, often travels from one group of lymph nodes to the next in a predictable path. The diagnosis process includes a series of tests to decipher the disease stage which can range from Stage I to Stage IV. In Stage I, only one lymph node region or single organ is affected. As the stages progress, more lymph node regions are affected, and in Stage IV, multiple organs and lymph node regions above and below the diaphragm are affected. 4

Hodgkin lymphoma treatment generally consists of combination chemotherapy plus/minus radiotherapy. After initial treatment, the majority of Hodgkin lymphoma patients will be considered cured, as many will achieve not only complete remission, but a long-term remission. 5

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

More than 60 non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes have been identified and assigned names by the World Health Organization (WHO), characterized by appearance, anatomical localization and cell composition. 6-9 

These subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphomas are divided into two major groups: T-cell lymphomas, which develop from abnormal T-lymphocytes, or B-cell lymphomas, which develop from abnormal B-lymphocytes. There are many different forms of T-cell lymphomas, some of which are extremely rare. T-cell lymphomas can be aggressive (fast-growing) or indolent (slow-growing). 6-9

There is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Subtypes can vary so much that they present as a practically different disease altogether, so treatment options also vary greatly. 10

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 1 Lymphoma Research Foundation. About Lymphoma. https://lymphoma.org/aboutlymphoma/Go to https://lymphoma.org/aboutlymphoma/. Accessed January 2021.  2 Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Lymphoma. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/lymphoma/index.htmGo to https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/lymphoma/index.htm. Accessed January 2021.  3 Moffitt Cancer Center. Hodgkin & Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas. https://mofitt.org/cancers/lymphomas-hodgkin-and-non-hodgkin/Go to https://mofitt.org/cancers/lymphomas-hodgkin-and-non-hodgkin/. Accessed January 2021.  4 American Cancer Society. Survival Rates for Hodgkin Lymphoma. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/hodgkin-lymphoma/detection-diagnosis-staging/staging.htmlGo to https://www.cancer.org/cancer/hodgkin-lymphoma/detection-diagnosis-staging/staging.html Accessed January 2021.  5 National Health Service (NHS) Hodgkin lymphoma treatment. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hodgkin-lymphoma/treatment/Go to https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hodgkin-lymphoma/treatment/. Accessed January 2021.  6 Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. https://www.lls.org/lymphoma/non-hodgkin-lymphomaGo to https://www.lls.org/lymphoma/non-hodgkin-lymphoma. Accessed January 2021.  7 Swerdlow SH, et al. Blood 2016;127:2375-2390.  8 Vose J, et al. J Clin Oncol 2008;26(25):4124-4130.  9 Matutes E. Int J Lab Hem. 2018;40(1):97-103.  10 Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. Treatment. https://www.lls.org/lymphoma/non-hodgkin-lymphoma/treatmentGo to https://www.lls.org/lymphoma/non-hodgkin-lymphoma/treatment. Accessed August 2021.  11 Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Facts. https://www.lls.org/sites/default/files/file_assets/peripheraltcelllymphomafacts.pdfGo to https://www.lls.org/sites/default/files/file_assets/peripheraltcelllymphomafacts.pdf. Accessed August 2021.  12 Lymphoma Research Foundation. Understanding Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma. https://lymphoma.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/LRF-ALCL_Factsheet_2021.pdfGo to https://lymphoma.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/LRF-ALCL_Factsheet_2021.pdf. Accessed August 2021.  13 Lymphoma Research Foundation. Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: Treatment Options. https://lymphoma.org/aboutlymphoma/nhl/ctcl/ctcltreatment/Go to https://lymphoma.org/aboutlymphoma/nhl/ctcl/ctcltreatment/ Accessed August 2021.

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